حلو الله يعطيكي العافيه
بحث حول المخدرات باللغه الانجليزيه
History and development of drug 4 - 5
Types of drugs 6 - 7
How do drugs affect the body ? 8
The basic scientific definition of a drug is that it is a substance that , by its chemical nature , affects the structure of function of aliving organism. This definition covers almost every thing that people ingest , inhale , inject , or absorb. In incluDes medicines , over – the – counter drugs , illegal drugs , beverage drugs , cigarettes , food additives , industrial chemicals , even food. There fore , any discussion of drugs must be some how limited , and that limitation is dependent up on aparticular Point of view of the world.
(Drug Education, E.Dusek And A.Girdano / 1987 / P.3 )
Drug is one of the medical profession's most valuable tools . Doctors prescribe drugs to treat or prevent many diseases. Every year, penicillin and other germ- killing drugs save the lives of countless
Victims of meningitis, pneumOnia, and other dangerous infectious diseases. Vaccines prevent such diseases as measles, polio, and smallpox. Analgesics lessen or eliminate pain. The use othese and many other kinds of drugs has helped millions of people live longer, healthier lives than Would otherwise have been possible.
( The World Book Encyclopedia / 1996 / P.311/ Vol.5 )
In this project , i will discuss disadvantages of drugs. I will focus on three questions.
First, what is ‘ the History and Development of drug ' ?
Next, what are the important types of drugs ?
Finally , how do drugs affect the body ?
I have chosen to write about this topic because it is believed that drug addiction is a widely spread phenoMenon which is being fought all over the world. Thus, i resolued to cast light on such a phenomenon.
What is the history and development of drugs?
Prehistoric peoples probably used drugs long before the first civilizations arose . It is likely they discovered that their aches and pains disappeared after they ate certain plants . they may have also noticed that animals ate certain plants only when ill and then recovered . prehistoric people probably then ate the same plants when they felt sick .
Drugs in ancient times . The oldest know written record of drug use is a clay tablet from the ancient Sumerian civilization of the Middle East . This tablet , made in the 2000s B.C., lists about a dozen drug prescriptions . An Egyptian scroll from about 1550 B.C. names more than 800 prescriptions containing about 700 drugs . The ancient Chinese , Greeks, and Romans also used many drugs . In addition , the Romans opened the first pharmacy and wrote the first prescriptions calling for definite amounts of drug ingredients .
Although ancient peoples used many drugs, most of the remedies were useless . Occasionally, people who had taken useless remedies recovered naturally. As a result, they thought the drugs were responsible . However, ancient peoples did discover some effective drugs . The Greeks and Romans, for example, used opium to relieve pain . The Egyptians used castor oil as a laxative ,and the Chinese ate liver to cure anemia .
Pharmaceutical firms are continually developing new drugs . Although company chemists discover some new drugs by accident, the creation of most new products begins with an idea.
This idea may be for anew kind of drug or for one that works better than exiting drug . A pharmaceutical company must then obtain such a drug, test it, and develop it into a safe ,easy-to-use form . The entire process takes about 10 years for most drug and is extremely expensive .
Creating anew drug is the task of accompany research chemical compound or obtain the drug from a natural source . this work may take many months or even years . For example , researchers for one U.S. drug company spent two years testing soil from all parts of the world to find new antibiotics . the tests involved more than 100,000 soil samples . The entire project resulted in the development of one antibiotic, ox tetracycline , used to treat such diseases as bronchitis, pneumonia, and whooping cough .
In the process of creating anew drug, researchers perform tests with animals to see if the substance is safe and effective . They first give the substance to small animals, such as rats, mice, and guinea pigs . If the substance passes these tests, it is given to larger animals, such as dogs and monkeys . Researchers may test hundreds of substances before finding one that appears safe and effective . They then try to find out how this drug works, in what forms it can be given , how the animal body eliminates the drug , and what side effects it may have . The drug company then sends this and other information about the drug to the drug to the authority responsible for the safety of drugs and asks for permission to conduct tests on people .
( The World book Encyclopedia,V.5,1996,P317)
2-What are the important types of drugs ?
“There So Many Types Of Drugs Are The Important”. This the most widely use drug in america. More than one – half the adult population drinks. More than nine million americans are believed to have definite problems associated with drinking. Six percent of high school seniors
report that they consume alcohol daily ; however , from 1979 to 1982 there was a slight drop in the number of current users of alcohol ( i.e. , those who have used alcohol with in the month prior to the survey ).
Nicotine is the second most widely used drug in the united states. Approximately 55 million americans smoke daily , and more than 485, 000 americans die prematurely from tobacco – related illnesses. Smoking annually causes 147,000 cancer deaths, 240,000 deaths from diseases of the circulatory system , 61,00 non- cancer deaths from diseases of the respiratory system , 4,000 in fant deaths due to mother’s smoking , 4,000 deaths due to fires and accidents , and nearly 15,000 deaths from miscellaneous and ill- defined diseases.
Over 40 million persons have experienced cannabis. The number of regular users is estimated to be ten to fifteen million and seems to be decreasing. Four million and the ages twelve and seventeen, and 8.5 million are between eighteen and twenty – five. Ten percent of high school seniors are daily users. Along with the downward trend in the number of current users of alcohol[ and tobacco, there appears to be as well adiminishing percentage of youth and young adults using marijuana. The health hazards of cannabis are of great concern , and this remains an area of interest for reseachers , as does the possibility of positive therapeutic use of cannsabis. The legal attempt to control the supply of this drug in the united states has been unsuccessful ( Hollister , 1983 ).
The 1982 NIDA survey showed that 6.7 percent of youth , 18 percent of young adults , and 6.2 percent of older adults had used stimulants for nonmedical reasons at least once. Additionally, 2.9 percent of youth , 4.3 percent of young adults , and 12 percent of older adults reported using stimulants for medical reasons at some time in their lives.
( Drug Education ,Dusek and Girdano / 1987 / P.6 )
3- How do drugs affect the body ?
1- “The drugs affect the body”. Sometimes the problem begins only
when you STOP taking the drug. In one of the most serous cases , ahospice nurse toldme of aterrifying first episode of mania that began shortly after she stopped taking an antidepressant drug. It was so severe she up in alocked psychiatric ward ended. This is also adrug hazard that can be minimized with careful management ( see below ).
Withdrawal effects are most common among all drugs that target the central nervous system. This includes tranquilizers , painkillers with narcotics , a mphetamines and other stimulants , nicotine , and many drugs for depression.
What happens is that the body slowly adapts or adjusts to the chemical intrusion of the drug , trying to nullify its effects. When the drug is suddenly with drawn it disrupts the nervous system until it can read just to a “ drug free “ world.
Rebound effects are a from of withdrawal effect that tricks many people into believing they can’t do without a drug. When the drug is withdrawn , the original problem returns , but the symptoms are often more severe than at the start. The classic case are the sleep medications such as halcion and restoril. Not only do they become less effectivive over time as the body adjusts to the chemical intrusion , stopping can cause rebound insomnia. Some drugs for high blood pressure , notably beta blockers , can sometimes cause rebound hypertension that can be hazardous.
2-If you’r taking tranquilizers, a htidepressants, or simulates such as the amphetamines or ritalin, it’s fairly obvios that they are going to affect mood. What is much less obvious is that hundreds of other drugs can alter mood, drugs you would not normally expect to have that effect. For example, some antibiotics and many blood pressure drugs affect mood, and consumers seldom get the proper warning.
The other problem is drugs supposed to create one change in mood have an opposite or some other unexpected effect. Some people become .. anxious or hostile after taking tranquilizers.
Generally the mood effects of drugs tend to fall into two patterns. Some drugs are downers, and make people feel tired, listless, dully, not interested in things, or quite depressed. Many others are stimulants, making people anxious, jittery, unable to sleep, panicky or fearful.
This Project Discussed The Drugs. It Asked Three Questions : - What Is " The History and development of drugs " ?
- What Are The Important Types Of Drugs ?
And – How Do Drugs Affect The Body ?
From Doing The Project I Learnt The Drug Is A Medicine It Brew Alcohol, Tobacco And Heroin, And It Is Very Dangerous For The Body. It Affect Also The Body. We Should Left To The Live Of Drugs, Because It Is Very Dangerous.
To Do This Project Reguired Many Skills. These Skills Included The Library Skills, Computer Skills And Reading Skills.
Over, The Most Important / Interesting / Usefulthing I Have Learnt From Doing This Project Is Show Me The Drugs Is Very Dangerous And Should Left The Live Of Drugs. It Is Interesting For Know The Drugs Affect The Body And You Can Know The Types Of Drugs With Which The Type Is Very Dangerous. The Most Important For The Boys To Know This Medicine Is Not Useful For The Body, But It Is Very Dangerous.
"Drugs", The World Book Encyclopedia , Vol.5, ( 1996 ),p.311
( Drug Education )
Dusek,E. And Girdano,A. ( 1987 ) , Drugs , New
York , Random House
The Longman Active Study Dictionary , 1999 ,
Addison Wesley Long man
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